All modern relational database management systems are based on an implementation of SQL (Structured Query Language). Most vendors have extended SQL into a more sophisticated programming language. The ANSI committee has standardized the language several times, of which ANSI SQL-92 is the latest specification. Unfortunately (or fortunately—depending on your point of view), each vendor has created its own version of this specification to extend ANSI SQL.
The language in use in Microsoft SQL Server is called Transact-SQL (T-SQL). It complies with the ANSI SQL-92 standard, and you can use this ANSI SQL–compliant language to select, update, insert, and delete records from tables.
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Basic Transact-SQL Programming Constructs
Tip 1: T-SQL identifiers
Tip 2: Database object qualifiers
Tip 3: Character string data types
Tip 4: Date, time and number data types
Tip 5: Special data types-Part 1
Tip 6: Special data types-Part 2
Tip 7: Local variables
Tip 8: Global variables
Tip 9: Table variables
Tip 10: Flow control statements
Tip 11: Blocks, looping and conditional statements
Tip 12: Unconditional and scheduled execution
Tip 13: Transact SQL cursors
Tip 14: Cursor related statements
Tip 15: Problems and justified use of cursors